Psychoanalyst Carl Jung suggested that what he termed "The Collective Unconscious" is inhabited by archetype, culturally determined yet universally present manifestations of different parts of our psyche. Here is a short list of Jungian archetypes along with explanations.
The Self - the self archetype according to Jung is the totality of psychic experience, it is our fundamental and consecutive sense of individuality.
The Shadow - the shadow archetype is Jung's theory is the hidden part of the self, the dark shadow that we cast through everything which we don't want to know about ourselves. The shadow for Jung equals to the Freudian unconscious.
The Anima and the Animus. The Anima - the anima archetype is the feminine side in the man, the internalized conception of womanhood that every man has The Animus - opposed to the anima, the animus archetype in Jung's theory relates to the masculine side in women.
The Child- the child archetype is associated with the process of individualization and growing up so that the archetypes symbolizes the developing personality.
The Sage (wise old man, senex) - the sage archetype according to Jung is a father figure which possess knowledge that allows it to become a guardian or mentor.
The Wise Old Woman - like the sage, the wise old woman archetype is a mother figure which possess feminine wisdom and even prophecy.
The Trickster - the trickster archetype uses his superior knowledge or position to play tricks with a "tongue in cheek" attitude, like the Cheshire Cat in Alice in Wonderland.
The Mother Goddess - "Pacha Mama", an archetype that represents the feminine side of creation, fertility, nature and sometimes destruction, like Gaia in Greek mythology.
Inner Child - as its name suggests, the inner child archetype represents the infantile, innocent and untamed part of, needing assistance and guarding.
Persona - the persona archetype according to Jung is the mask which put on when facing the world, in a sense opposed to the self but not completely since it can also reveal something true about us which would otherwise be unnoticed.