Tuesday, July 27, 2021

Summary: Aristotle / Nicomachean Ethics Book 10: Happines

Aristotle - Ethics - Book Ten - Pleasure and the Life of Happiness.

In the tenth book of Nicomachean Ethics    , Aristotle discusses pleasure and happiness. All his life man wonders what he should rejoice in and what he should hate, and these questions carry great weight regarding the good virtue and the happy longevity.

Some argue that pleasure is good, that all animals aspire to it and also that sorrow is not desirable at all. Plus when it connects to another good action then it increases the nature of the action. But therefore pleasure is not good, because the good to know Aristotle should be good for himself, and even from the fact that sorrow is bad one should not conclude that pleasure is good. Pleasure does not apply to everything equally, and in the same way (the more one learns, the pleasure is not necessarily greater) does not fulfill any need, and has sources that are not good. Pleasure according to Aristotle is not the good, and not every pleasure is desirable. But there are some desirable pleasures per se according to their image and origin.

The pleasure of knowing Aristotle belongs to the same things that are whole and whole, because in one moment the whole is revealed. Pleasure completes actions according to its own purpose. Therefore the pleasure is not continuous, since it accompanies the activity and complements it. And thus Aristotle argues that there are also different kinds of pleasure, depending on the activity it complements. The activities that accompany it are different for each person according to his nature, and even contribute to the success of the activity and perseverance in it. The pleasures foreign to the action, but accompanying it, harm the nature of the action and even cancel it out. Because there are actions that are good, bad, and that are not so and not so, so too with pleasures. Good pleasure, like good learning, is at the discretion of the decent man.

After discussing good virtue , friendship , and pleasure, Aristotle discusses happiness, which is the purpose for human actions. In Aristotle's opinion everything in the world is done for the purpose of happiness . Happiness derives from a lifestyle that is according to the good virtue, and is expressed in activity according to the good in essence, which is the theoretical action. The mind is the finest of powers, and recognition through it is the finest, and the most continuous. Also, the enjoyment of the theoretical activity is the best. Knowledge, philosophy, combine t with the basic needs of life is happiness. Strong on a person who lives a life of studyThey will leave him free time in life - "this activity is a person's perfect happiness". Such a way of life is superior to what is given to a person, so every person should live according to his life, in accordance with the superiority of its foundations, but at the same time take care of the life according to the mind - which is the person himself. The perfect happiness for Aristotle is a theoretical activity, since it is an activity close to the activity of the gods.

A second-rate lifestyle for Aristotle is a lifestyle according to the other good qualities which are of one man towards another. According to Aristotle acts that include character traits, which have a parallel in the virtues of the brain. But such a lifestyle needs greater external resources, in order to achieve greater happiness. Perfect good virtue is not possible without good intention.

For Aristotle the recognition of the good virtue is not enough, there is a need for deeds, to become excellent people. The person should be able to distinguish between what is proper and what is obscene, and since emotion is subject only to power, it is desirable to adapt the character from a young age to the good virtue. In adulthood they were subject to the laws of the state which in punitive threats, would be directed to the right way of life. Yet, Aristotle states, the good man should indulge in a decent life of his own free will and not coercion, and this should be instilled through education and state intervention in the lives of its citizens, a public concern. Those who have the knowledge, knowledge of the rules and experience, should take care of the public and refer it to a normal life.