Monday, December 21, 2020

The End of History (Fukuyama) Explained

"The End of History" is a concept from the field of political philosophy associated with Francis Fukuyama, an American thinker of Japanese descent. In 1989, Fukuima published an article entitled "The End of History" (and later in 1992 a book entitled "The End of History and the Last Man") in which he argued that with the collapse of the Communist bloc the great ideological controversies were closed, and Western liberal and capitalist democracy would now be accepted without competitors.

Fukuyama claimed that with the fall of the Berlin Wall historical reasoning achieved its final goal. Inspired by Hegel, who argued that there are deterministic ideas in history that seek self-fulfillment, Fukuyama argued that this process had indeed matured and ended: the long-running conflict between Capitalism and Marxism ended in the full victory of the Capitalist West. We now come to the utopian stage, where history is no longer a field of conflicts between competing ideas. The human figure we know, which is a product of these conflicts, is also coming to an end according to Fukuyama. 

see a brief summary of The end of History and the Last Man by Fukuyama and an extended summary with defenitions and examples. 

see also End of History vs. Clash of Civilizations debate for a critique of Fukuyama's ideas.