Tuesday, November 14, 2017

short summary: Natural Philosophers - History of Philosophy

Each philosopher or group of philosophers from the natural philosophers has a project. This group wanted to explain the natural world.

Questions posed:         Is there a basic substance?
                                    Can water turn to wine?
                                    How can earth and water produce a frog?
                                    How does transformation occur in nature?

Xenophanes(570 BC) – wanted an explanation of how god created man in his own image.
Thales(585 BS) – thought all life was made of water.
Anaximenes(526 BC) – air made all life, water is condensed air.
Parmenides(480 BC) – can’t trust your senses, things don’t really change, everything stays the same.
Heraclitus(480 BC) – there is constant change, characterized by opposites
Empedocles(430 BC) – both of the above are right & wrong. Four basic substances: earth, air, fire, & water. We can combine these to make everything. Love binds while strife separates – this explains the chemical changes. Raised the question, “how can I see a flower?” Believed that the eye contained all four substances.
Anaxagoras(428 BC) – everything is built from an infinite number of small particles. But, the whole is in every part (like DNA). He thought that the sun was a red hot stone and that the planets didn’t make their own light.
Democritus(370 BC) – Hypothesized atoms – you can use them over & over again. Believed in nothing but material things(materialist). Did not believe in a soul.

More questions:           Why is Lego ingenius?
                                    Do you believe in Fate?
                                    Is sickness punishment from the gods?
                                    What forces govern the course of history?

Fatalism is a belief in predestiny. Greeks believed in Oracle at Delphi. Influenza means malign influence from the stars. Hip. oath + moderation&healtly lifestyle -> good health

Back to the history of philosophy 

Good to books to start exploring the history of philosophy: