Means of production ( German : Produktionsmittel) is a term coined by Karl Marx to denote the same part of the production forces that includes physical, non-human means, used in production.
These factors include factories, machinery, tools and raw materials, as well as infrastructure capital and natural capital , the classic factors of production less financial capital and human capital . When used outside the Marxist concept, the term usually refers to raw materials and infrastructure capital or, at times, as a general definition of property.
According to Marx, the bourgeois capitalist has ownership of the means of production, but not of the power of production (i.e., labor) while in practice ownership of the power of production, but not of the means of production. In his view, the capitalist turns the laborer into an object, as an additional factor of production, and uses his labor power, combined with the means of production, to produce goods. Hence, within the goods, a part that originates from the infrastructural capital and natural capital and a part that originates from labor is assimilated.
According to Marx's analysis, in order to achieve true communism , the capitalist must be deprived of the means of production - that is, to bring about a positive abolition of private ownership of property. In the absence of private property, Marx predicted, the class struggle would disappear and the future, communist society would be created, in which true equality would prevail.