Wednesday, November 15, 2017

Short Summary: Spinoza - History of Philosophy

Spinoza (1632-1677) was an excommunicated Jew who  had a historico-critical interpretation of the Bible. Spinoza wanted to see things from the “perspective of eternity.” Said God is all, all is God. So he’s a pantheist. In ethical matters, we must free ourselves from all feelings and passions. Unlike Descartes, Spinoza was a monist. He only believe in substance. God is all of these substances. We humans recognize two of God’s qualities. God manifests itself as either, or even more, but we only know two. “You are but a finger of God’s body.” You are governed according to the laws of nature. He had a deterministic view of the natural world. Everything happens through necessity. Outer circumstances can constrain humans. Humans according to Spinoza will never achieve free will because they are constrained by desire.

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